Nitin sangwan by Environment and Ecology notes

Nitin sangwan by Environment and Ecology notes

Environment and Ecology notes pdf

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Nitin sangwan by Environment and Ecology notes pdf 2022:- Today be are sharing Environment and Ecology notes pdf After reading these, you may refer to the new NCERTS as well. Why new NCERTs? Because they are more graphic and have an interactive style. At times they are more engaging than the older ones and had explained a few topics in a much lucid manner. Beginners are advised to read NCERT as they can understand the basic concepts clearly from it. The candidate may face some difficulty in this stage as it seems very technical.

Always keep things manageable. It is not so important that how much you read, but how well you read. Keep in mind that whatever you read, you have to revise that also at times of mains exam. So, limit your study material. These topics like Science and Technology, Internal Security, Environment and Ecology, Geography, history of Modern India, Culture of India and Economy have been included in the notes of Nitin Sangwan.

Whenever a student prepares for the Civil Services Examination, the first thing that comes to his mind is what he should study or not, because the UPSC Syllabus is very broad, due to which many students are not sure from where to study. Therefore, if you want to crack this exam, then it is very important for you to take the advice of seniors or toppers along with the right study material. Beginners are advised to read NCERT as they can understand the basic concepts clearly from it. The candidate may face some difficulty in this stage as it seems very technical.

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Environment and Ecology Question Answer

1. The study of the relationship between the environment and the living communities is called?

Answer – Ecology

2. Who was the first to study Ecology?

Answer – Ernst Hackel

3. Who introduced firstly the Ecosystem word?

Answer – A.G. Tansley

4. In which year the term Ecosystem was used first?

Answer – 1935

5. Which are the two components of Ecology?

Answer – Biotic and Abiotic

6. The transitional zones between two Ecosystems are called?

Answer – Ecotone

7. Which are the two parts of the Ecosystem-based on habitat?

Answer – Terrestrial and Aquatic

8. The still freshwater Ecosystem is called?

Answer – Lentic

9. Moving freshwater Ecosystem is called?

Answer – Lotic

10. The functional role of an organism in the Ecosystem is called?

Answer – Niche

11. The biotic components in the ecosystem which make their food self are called?

Answer – Producer

12. The sustainable biotic group in the Ecosystem is called?

Answer – Ecotone (contagion)

13. When the number of one species in an area exceeds other communities are called?

Answer – Edge Effect

14. In which region of the world has the most complex Ecosystem?

Answer – Equatorial Region

English Notes PDF 

Environment and Ecology Question Answer

15. Where are the most stable Ecosystems found?

Answer – Ocean

16. Who used the word Biodiversity firstly?

Answer – E.A.Nors (1980)

17. Which one is the richest area of ​​Biodiversity?

Answer – Tropical rainforest

18. Which region is known as the storehouse of Biodiversity?

Answer – Tropical rainforest

19. Which region has the highest productivity in the Aquatic Ecosystem?

Answer – Tidal river Region

20. The low productivity in the deep sea region is called?

Answer – Bio Desert

21. Which area has the largest terrestrial life?

Answer – Savanna Region

22. How many percentages of the world is occupied by the savanna region?

Answer – 24%

23. Herbivores animals are also called?

Answer – Primary consumer

24. The first nutritional order includes.

Answer – Plants

25. What is the percentage of energy transformation from one nutritional order to another nutritional order in a food chain system?

Answer – 10%

26. Who is the scavenger of Nature?

Answer – Decomposer

27. The region which is prosperous in biodiversity but their habitat is on the edge of destruction, is called?

Answer – Hotspots

28. How many hotspots are recognized in the world?

Answer – Nearly 30

Polity PDF Notes

Environment and Ecology Question Answer

29. How many hotspot regions in India?

Answer – 4 Hotspots

30. Which region is declared as the first Hotspot in India?

Answer – Western Ghats (Nilgiris region)

31. An oceanic sensitive zone is called?

Answer – Hope spot

32. What is the percentage of India’s contributions to global biodiversity?

Answer – 8%

33. In which region of India biodiversity is mostly found?

Answer – Silent Valley (Kerala)

34. Which gas is most responsible for global warming?

Answer – Carbon dioxide

35. Which gases are responsible for the Greenhouse effect?

Answer – CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC

36. Which summit is known as the Greenhouse summit?

Answer – Kyoto Protocol

37. Montreal agreement (1987) is related to?

Answer – Ozone protection

GK Notes PDF

Environment and Ecology Question Answer

38. In which sphere of atmosphere the Ozone layer is situated?

Answer – Stratosphere (20-35Km)

39. Who discovered the Ozone hole firstly?

Answer – Forman (1985)

40. Which gas is the most effective for Ozone depletion?

Answer – CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon)

41. What is the main source of CFC gas?

Answer – Refrigerators

42. In which region does the ozone hole is maximum expanded?

Answer – Over Antarctica.

43. The Ramasar treaty is related to?

Answer – wetlands protection

44. River pollution level is measured by?

Answer – BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)

45. List of endangered creatures and plants is published?

Answer – In Red Data Book

46. What is the total organic matter present in an ecosystem called?

Answer – Biomass

47. Which chemical is responsible for Acid rain?

Answer – SO2 & NO2

48. What should be the intensity of sound permitted regarding the safe noise level for a city?

Answer – 45db

49. Where was the Ramasar treaty held?

Answer – Iran

50. Which region is called the lungs of the world?

Answer – Amazon Basin

Geography PDF Notes

Environment and Ecology Question Answer

51. How many Biospheres Reserves in India?

Answer – 18 Biospheres

52. Which one was the first Biosphere Reserve in India?

Answer – Nilgiri Biosphere

53. Which was the first biosphere of India that was included in the UNESCO World Network?

Answer – Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

54. Which is the latest biosphere reserve of India included by UNESCO in the world network?

Answer – Kanchenjunga

55. How many of India’s biosphere reserves are included in the UNESCO World network?

Answer – 11 biosphere reserves of India

56. Which Indian river is known as the Green Soup?

Answer – Yamuna River is known as the Green soup between Delhi to Agra due to Pollution.

57. Which River is called Coal carrying river?

Answer – Rhine River

58. Which country is called Country of Lakes?

Answer – Finland

59. What are the main objectives of the Kyoto Protocol (1997) agreement?

Answer – Control of Greenhouse gases and Global Warming

60. In which summit ‘Agenda-21’ was passed?

Answer – First Earth Summit 1992.

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English NotesCLICK HERE
Reasoning NotesCLICK HERE
Indian Polity NotesCLICK HERE
General KnowledgeCLICK HERE
General Science Notes

Environment and Ecology Question Answer

Q :Who propounded the term ecology?

(A) Charles Darwin

(B) Robert Whitaker

(C) Arthur Tansley

(D) Ernest Hackle

Answer : D

Q : Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
(A) methane

(B) nitrous oxide

(C) Sulfur Hexa Fluoride

(D) carbon monoxide

Answer : D

Q : Which of the following is not an area of coral reef?
(A) Gulf of Mannar

(B) Gulf of Cambay

(C) Lakshadweep

(D) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Answer : B

Q : Biological indicator of pollution of sulfur dioxide is: –
(A) moss

(B) smoke

(C) Braophyta

(D) None of these

Answer : A

Q : An aquatic plant was introduced to the US to remove pollution in Indian aquatic bodies as a troublesome weed. what is its name?
(A) hawthorn

(B) Egiolps

(C) hyacinth

(D) Pistia

Answer : B

Q : Which award is given to those who show indomitable courage in the field of wildlife conservation?
(A) Indira Gandhi Environment Award

(B) Medini Award Scheme

(C) Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award

(D) Pitambar Pant National Award

Answer : C

Q: The Cartagena protocol is about safe use, transfer and handling?
(A) nuclear waste

(B) invasive alien species

(C) Modified Living Organisms (LMO)

(D) None of these

Answer : B

Q : Who is the Chairman of Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP)?
(A) R • K • Pachauri

(B) Vandana Shiva

(C) Madhav Gadgil

(D) Pradeep Krishnan

Answer : C

Q : Which of the following multilateral conference is meant to protect human health and the environment from sustainable organic pollutants?
(A) bone conference

(B) Stockholm Conference

(C) Rotterdam Conference

(D) Basel Conference

Answer : B

Q : Which one of the following organisms has a role in converting nitrates to free nitrogen?
(A) Pseudomonas

(B) Nitrosomonas

(C) Nitrobacter

(D) Rhizobium

Answer : D

Q : Octopus belongs to the phylum
(A) Echinodermata

(B) Nideria

(C) Mollusca

(D) Chordata

Answer : C

Q : All green plants and certain blue-green algae which can produce food by photosynthesis are called the_____.
(A) Consumers

(B) Producers

(C) Decomposers

(D) Bacteria

Answer : B

Q : Electron gun is the main part?
(A) Cathode Ray Isoloscope

(B) Transistor tester

(C) Single Generator

(D) All of the above

Answer : A

Q : Refrigerators have a relay?
(A) Magnetic type

(B) by simple switch

(C) Non-magnetic

(D) All of the above

Answer : A

Q : What is the coupling of primary and secondary coils in transformer?
(A) Electrical

(B) Mechanical

(C) Magnetic

(D) All these

Answer : C

Q : Are secondary electrical devices?
(A) Depleting torques

(B) Containing torque

(C) Damping torque

(D) All these

Answer : D

Q : In the nitrogen cycle, soil nitrates are converted into free nitrogen by whom?
(A) nitrifying bacteria

(B) denitrifying bacteria

(C) ammonifying bacteria

(D) None of these

Answer : B

Q : The relationship between the water fern Azola and the cyanobacterium Annabena is: –
(A) symbiotic

(B) mutual

(C) Survival

(D) Proto-support

Answer : A

Environment and Ecology with Answers

1. The Earth summit was organised by

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Earth Summit was organised by UNCED i.e. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in the year 1992. It is also known as Rio Summit and Rio Conference.

2. World Environmental day is celebrated on ________ every year.
A. 01-05-2001
B. 05-06-2005
C. 01-10-2024
D. 01-12-2025

Answer: Option B
Explanation : World Environment Day is held each year on June 5. It is one of the principal vehicles through which the United Nations (UN) stimulates worldwide awareness of the environment and enhances political attention and action.

3. Environment includes
A. Abiotic component
B. Biotic component
C. Oxygen and Nitrogen
D. Abiotic and Biotic component

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Environment includes both Abiotic and Biotic component. Biotic describes a living component of an ecosystem. Abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment which affect ecosystems.

4. The largest ecosystem of earth is
A. Biome
B. Hydrosphere
C. Lithosphere
D. Biosphere

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Biosphere is the single largest ecosystem of the earth. Simply, biosphere is known as the sum of all ecosystems also known as the ecosystem also the zone of life on earth.

5. For which of the following reason, it is necessary to secure a large area for forest?
A. Absorption of carbon dioxide
B. Conservation of wild
C. More rain
D. Ecological balance

Answer: Option D
Explanation : For Ecological balance, it is necessary to secure a large area for forest. In order to maintain ecosystem on land area where human beings have already damaged most of the habitats especially forest biomes, ecological balance can only be maintaine by increasing forest area.

6. Among the following climatic factors, which one has the least effect upon a terrestrial ecosystem?
A. Temperature variation
B. Wind
C. Conditions of sunlight
D. Availability of water

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Among the following climatic factors, Wind has the least effect upon a terrestrial ecosystem. A terrestrial ecosystem is a type of ecosystem found only on biomes. Seven primary terrestrial ecosystems exist: tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, tropical rain forest, grassland, deserts add more information regarding each of these ecosystems.

7. Soil is eroded heavily due to deforestation, it affects the flowing of surface water badly. Which of the following is badly affected by these causes
A. Human Resource
B. Ecological System
C. Climate
D. Local Plants

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Soil is eroded heavily due to deforestation, it affects the flowing of surface water badly. Ecological System is badly affected by these causes. An ecosystem or ecological system is the base of habitats of species. In an ecosystem biotic beings (living organisms) interact with abiotic beings (non living things). Deforestation leads to soil erosion vanishing the habitats thus damaging ecosystem.

Topic Related PDF Download:- Environment and Ecology

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