Ncert Geography PDF (India Resources & Regional Development)
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Topics Include In Geography PDF (India Resources & Regional Development)
Types of Resources
To simply define, resources are everything available in our environment which satisfies our needs. In fact, human beings themselves are a part of the natural resources. They develop the available natural elements and transform them into ‘resources’ for use. These are the different types of resources based on various factors:
Based on their Origin: Biotic & Abiotic Resources
- Biotic resources comprise any life form that lives in nature. Like us-human beings, other animals, plants, and all flora and fauna.
- Whereas, abiotic resources are available in nature too, but have no life. Like metals, rocks, and stones.
Based on their Exhaustibility: Renewable & Non-renewable
- Renewable resources are elements of nature which renew themselves. Solar energy, wind, water, forests etc.
- On the other hand, non-renewable resources, as the name suggests are limited for use by humans. Like fossil fuels and minerals. Though they would take millions of years to form, eventually, they would get over with continuous use.
Based on Ownership: Individual, Community, National and International
- Individual resources mostly refer to land, property, plantations, farms etc. that people own. The resources that all community members use are Community-owned resources. Like farmlands, properties, pastures, public parks, playgrounds, burial grounds, picnic spots etc.
- National resources are simply everything in nature or man-made that belong to the country. This includes the territory of oceans and seas. The government of the country has the right to keep, develop or utilize any or all of these resources according to their requirements.
- On the other hand, institutions control and regulate the international resources. For using any resource beyond a country’s own, the respective government would need to take permission from these institutions.
Based on the Status of Development: Potential, Developed, Stock
Potential resources are those which are already available in nature. Also, we have already discovered them but are not completely utilized. Solar and wind energy are two of such resources. Despite their current usage, we can explore these resources more.
Developed resources are quite the opposite. We take years to develop most of the water, fossil fuel, minerals, plants and animals that we use for our need today.
Stock Resources are ones which have the potential but we do not have the adequate knowledge or technology to develop it. Like Hydrogen and Oxygen gases can be used as rich sources of energy but we are yet to discover how.
Development of Resources
Nature has blessed us with so many natural resources. And, to add it, humans have learned to develop the gifts of nature and create man-made resources. But none of these come for free. Even though you might think that it occurs in nature, each of these resources will have to be developed, maintained and conserved so our future generations can get benefits from them, like we did.
Hence resource planning is essential to bring about sustainable existence, which is a part of sustainable development. Sustainable economic development refers to the ‘development of resources without causing any harm to the environment. Also, such development should not compromise with the needs of future generations.’
Resources and Development Planning
So, how do we plan the resources and development of the same? India is a land of rich natural resources and diversely so. However, while some regions are ahead in their resources and development, other regions lag behind. For example, states like Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh, are blessed with minerals and metal ores.
However, they largely lack proper infrastructure and urban resources. In such cases, we need to consider resource planning at a national, state, regional and even local levels. Resource planning involves 3 steps:
- Identifying and documenting the available resources across different regions
- Designing a structured plan supported by innovation and technology
- Matching the resources and development plans with those of the nation
And Many More…
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