Indian Polity Important Terms (राजवयवस्था से सम्बंधित महत्वपूर्ण शब्दावली)
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Topics Include In Indian Polity Important Terms (राजवयवस्था से सम्बंधित महत्वपूर्ण शब्दावली)
The discipline that applies mathematics, statistics and probability theory to assess risk in human affairs such as insurance, issuing finance, and in some cases sentencing in criminal justice. e.g. health insurance companies on average charge women higher rates than men because statistics show women seek medical help more often.
Latin for “to the man”. Attacking the presenter of an argument rather than the argument itself. Aka “playing the man, not the ball”.
Less-than-subtle political propaganda disseminated through the media and performing arts. Term derived from the then department of Agitation and Propaganda of the Soviet Union.
Greek for gathering place or assembly. The town square in ancient Greek city states used for political discussions and decision making as well as other activities such as artistic and spiritual gatherings.
A vote cast by voters who are out of their division but still within their State or Territory which may be cast at any polling place in that State or Territory.
A member of Parliament (government or opposition) who is not in a leadership role in their party but merely sits literally on the back bench.
‘white left’. A derogatory Chinese term to describe what the speaker sees as a naïve white liberal advocating modern ideologies such as peace, empathy and equality in a virtue signalling manner.
balance of power
The leverage a small party in the legislature possesses, in being able to give, or hold back, voting support to a large, albeit still minority party, to allow it to have a majority on a vote.
A method of secret voting, normally in a written form.
A paper handed to each voter on election day to be marked, showing the names of the candidates (and sometimes the parties) who are standing for election.
A small country economically dependent on a single agrarian export commodity (traditionally a banana exporting, maritime state of the West Indies or Central America), with a corrupt government. Term derived by author O. Henry for a short story involving the fictional Republic of Anchuria.
Derogatory term for a politician who panics easily and shows signs of caving when newer, creative, or more ideological policies their party advocates start to come under criticism.
bell the cat
An impractical suggestion that highlights the short sightedness of the theorist advocating a problem’s solution which, however, will not in work in practice, or be politically lethal for the party proposing it. Derived from a fable about a group of mice who decide the best way to be warned when the cat is near is for someone to place a bell around its neck, only to find there are no volunteers to perform that task.
The ‘board of directors’ of executive government. Made up of the President / Prime Minister as chairman and each director as a secretary or minister responsible for the relevant government departments such as defence, environment, trade etc.
‘Caesar’s wife must be above suspicion.’ The maxim that family or close associates of a prominent pubic figure must go to extra lengths to keep themselves above suspicion of wrongdoing. Caesar divorced his wife Pompeia after it was suspected, but not proven, that she aided a third party to commit the crime of sacrilege.
A state ruled by a caliph, who is considered to be the chief Islamic civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor in line from Muhammad.
Country house retreat of the American President
A person who stands for election to political office. In Australia candidates can be nominated by political parties or stand as independents.
An economic system based on the recognition of private property rights, where prices are dictated by supply and demand, and where the means of production and distribution of goods and services derive from privately owned resources, or capital, operating within an unregulated market.
A type of governance where those in power refrain from significant actions such as undertaking major legislative programs or senior judicial or public service appointments, but only maintain necessary normal administrative duties. The reason for this is that power would be in transition due to an election being due or being called suddenly due to the success of a vote of no confidence, or some other situation where legitimate democratic government has to be restored.
A pejorative term to describe outsiders taking advantage of a situation where others would normally be expected to benefit. A carpet bag was a fashionable form of luggage of the time used by northern “Yankees”, political appointees or businessmen, who moved down to southern states during the American post-Civil War Reconstruction era taking advantage of the instability, power vacuum and fire sale prices of the property market.
Daughter of the Trojan king Priam in Homer’s Illiad, who not only possessed the gift of prophecy but was cursed by the god Apollo in that she would never be believed. Someone who predicts calamitous events if specific policy decisions are not undertaken, but who is generally ignored.
The concerted defensive mode of response a political player sometimes adopts to offset the negative publicity when an embarrassing “situation” develops, such as a controversial comment, evidence of a scandal, egregious hypercritical actions or abuse of public position.
dark horse candidate
An unexpected, somewhat unknown candidate with little public exposure who has potential to win an election against established candidates. Term originated by British politician and author, Benjamin Disraeli.
State within a state. A situation in a country when a government agency, such as a branch of the armed forces, an intelligence agency, police, or a bureaucratic department, acts (conspiratorially or overtly) independently of civilian democratic leadership.
deficit / national debt
The shortfall in any one year of a nation’s income as compared to its expenditure / the total unpaid accumulated debt of the government over time.
Government intentionally spending more money than it takes in.
Aka enabling legislation. Rules, regulations, by-laws, ordinances etc made by a government official under the authority of a specific act of parliament which sets out the broad purpose of what is desired, but delegates to that official’s office, the authority to create the minutia, the delegated legislation, necessary. Whereas all parliamentary legislation is final and cannot be challenged in court (apart from constitutional inconsistencies) delegated legislation can be challenged in court if it is shown to violate the purpose of the original act.
A leader who gains popularity by appealing to prejudice and basic instincts. Considered manipulative and dangerous.
From the Greek ‘demos’ for the ordinary, common people and ‘kratos’ for power or strength.
In practice the name often given by governments to voters in normal elections, or to those who have been appointed to a certain level so as to vote their choice to a higher office. Eg. the American Electoral College to choose the President. Technically, a voter who is successful in helping to get his preferred candidate elected. Term possibly used to disguise the fact that approximately half of all voters in SMV systems end up electing nobody.
Geographical areas used as a criterion for political representation. Australia is divided into 150 (federal) voting districts or divisions which are known as electorates. One member is elected from each electorate to the House of Representatives. In Parliament the electorate of Menzies will be represented by the Member for Menzies who will have the Seat of Menzies.
Residence of the French President
One who leaves their home country for political reasons.
an end-run around the constitution
Football analogy to describe a tactic of questionable legitimacy whereby the executive and / or the legislature manufacture a process whereby an action can be claimed to be legal even though, prima facie, it violates the tenets and text of the constitution.
Aka the Age of Reason. 18th century epoch of intellectual advancement where “humanity was brought into the light of reason out of the darkness of tradition and prejudice”. Originating in the UK but developing fully in continental countries such as France with thinkers such as Spinoza, Voltaire and Rousseau.
The pre-requisite to voting. The voters name must be on the electoral roll before he/she can vote. Australian citizens of at least 18 yrs are allowed (and compelled) to enrol. In the USA those who choose to vote must repeatedly enrol for every election.
INDIAN POLITY MCQ
Directions ( Q. No. 1-10 ) : In questions , sentences are given with blanks to be filled in with an appropriate word (s). Four alternatives are suggested for each question. Choose the correct alternatives out of the four :
Q 1) Which of the following commission was appointed by the Central Government on Union-State relations in 1983?
a. Sarkariya commission
b. Dutt commission
c. Setalvad commission
d. Rajamannar commission
Q 2) Which of the following taxes are levied by the Union but are collected and appropriated by the states?
a. Stamp duties
b. Excise duties on medical and toilet materials
c. Sales tax
d. a and b
Q 3) Which of the following taxes are imposed and collected by the state government?
a. Estate duty
b. Sales tax
c. Land revnue
d. All the above
Q 4) Which of the following tax is levied and collected by the Union government but the proceeds are distributed between the Union and states?
a. Sales tax
b. Income tax
c. Estate duty
d. Land revenue
Q 5) Which of the following is levied and collected by the Union government?
a. Custom duty
b. Excise duty
c. Estate duty
d. All the above
Q 6) Which of the article deals with the grants in aid by the Union government to the states?
a. Article 270
b. Article 280
c. Article 275
d. Article 265
Q 7) Which of the following article deals with the election of the Vice-president?
a. Article 64
b. Article 68
c. Article 66
d. Article 62
Q 8) Who can remove the Vice-President from his office ?
b. Prime minister
d. Legislative assemblies of the state
Q 9) The term of office of the Vice-president is as follows?
a. 6 years
b. 4 years
c. 7 years
d. 5 years
Q 10) The Vice-president is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya sabha?
a. Rajya Sabha
b. Lok Sabha
c. Planning Commission
d. National Development Council